Planet Earth Has Problems Supplying Clean Water and Treating Human Waste and Waste Water

The United Nations estimates that 85% of the World Population lives in the driest half of the world. 783 million people are estimated not to have access to clean water and almost 2.5 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation.

The treatment of wastewater requires significant amounts of energy and demand for energy to do this, is expected to increase globally by 44% between 2006 to 2030 (IEA,2009), especially in non-OECD countries where waste water currently receives little or no treatment

Desalination for Clean Water Supply

Desalination of seawater and brackish water can be a cost-effective process to exploiting the enormous amount of salt water available on Earth. Many and different technologies exist to obtain pure water from seawater. The Middle East mainly uses thermal distillation processes the US and Europe prefers membrane-based processes.

The most widely applied desalination technology is Reverse Osmosis (RO). RO is a robust technology, but energy intensive. R&D is continuing to trying to increase the efficiency of the process to increase the yield of usable drinking water and reduce the high-energy consumption of the process.

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